Sedimentary Features can be grouped into a number of major categories bases on the physical processes involved.

These main categories are:

Current and Wave Ripples
Surface Markings and Imprints
Scour-and-Fill Structures
Tool Marks
Deformation Structures (Penecontemporaneous)
Organic Structures

Plane Bed without Movement

Small Ripples


Plane Bed with Sediment Movement



General Information


  • Small-ripple Bedding
  • Megaripple Bedding
  • Wave-ripple Bedding
  • Longitudinal Cross-bedding
  • Channel-fill Cross-bedding
  • Antidune Cross-bedding
  • Microdelta Cross-bedding
  • Beach and Longshore Bar Cross-bedding
  • Sand Dune Cross-bedding
  • Sand-Drift Cross-bedding
  • Scour-and-Fill Cross-bedding
  • Climbing-ripple Lamination
  • Flaser and Lenticular Bedding
  • Ripple Bedding with Flasers
  • Flaser Bedding
  • Wavy Bedding
  • Lenticular Bedding

Graded Bedding

Evenly Laminated Sand and Horizontal Bedding

Coarsely Interlayered Bedding

Thinly Interlayered Bedding (Rhythmites)

Thinly Laminated Mud

Homogeneous Bedding

Current Ripples

  • Small-Current Ripples
  • Straight-Crested Small Ripples
  • Undulatory Small Ripples
  • Lingoid Small Ripples.
  • Rhomboid Small Ripples
  • Climbing Ripples
  • Megaripples
  • Straight-Crested Megaripples
  • Undulatory Megaripples
  • Lunate Megaripples
  • Lingoid Megaripples
  • Rhomboid Megaripples
  • Giant Ripples
  • Antidunes

Wave Ripples

  • Symmetrical Wave Ripples
  • Asymmetrical Wave Ripples

Combined Current/Wave Ripples

  • Longitudinal Combined Current/Wave Ripples
  • Transverse Combined Current/Wave Ripples
  • Isolated Ripples

Wind Ripples

  • Movement of Sand in a Wind Regime
  • Wind Sand Ripples
  • Wind Granule Ripples

Distribution of Ripples in Various Depositional Environments

Mud Cracks

Frost and Ice Cracks

Raindrop Imprints

Foam Impressions

Crystal Imprints and Casts

Water Level Marks

Primary Current Lineation

Wrinkle Marks

Antiripplets (Adhesion Ripples)

Bubble Sand Structure and Other Bubble Cavities

Swash Marks

Rill Marks

Drag Marks (windblown, solifluction)


Scour Marks

Flute Marks

Transverse Scour Marks

Flute Rill Marks

Longitudinal Furrows and Ridges

Triangular Marks Tapering Down-Current

Pillow-like Scour Marks

Stationary Tool Marks

Obstacle Marks

Moving Tool Marks

  • Groove Marks
  • Chevron Marks
  • Prod Marks
  • Bounce Marks
  • Brush Marks
  • Skip and Roll Marks

Load Structures

Flame Structures

Ball-and-Pillow Structures

Convolute Bedding

Slump Structures

Mud and Sand Volcanoes and Other Similar Features

Clastic Dykes

Trace Fossils